As of 2018-08-15, the root server system consists of 937 instances operated by the 12 independent root server operators.

The 13 root name servers are operated by 12 independent organisations.

You can find more information about each of these organisations by visiting their homepage as found in the 'Operator' field below.

Technical questions about the Root Server System as a whole can be directed to the Ask RSSAC e-mail address.

Root Servers Archives


Sites: 8
Ashburn, US Frankfurt, DE London, GB Los Angeles, US New York, US Tokyo, JP
IPv4: 198.41.0.4
IPv6: 2001:503:ba3e::2:30
26415
A Root YAML
Information Sciences Institute
Sites: 2
Los Angeles, USA Miami, USA
IPv4: 199.9.14.201
IPv6: 2001:500:200::b
394353
B Root YAML
Cogent Communications
Sites: 10
Bratislava, SK Chicago, US Frankfurt, DE Herndon, US Los Angeles, US Madrid, ES New York, US Paris, FR Queretaro, MX Singapore, SG
IPv4: 192.33.4.12
IPv6: 2001:500:2::C
2149
C Root YAML
University of Maryland
Sites: 141
Abidjan, Ivory Coast Accra, Ghana Amsterdam, Netherlands Antananarivo, Madagascar Arusha, Tanzania Ashburn, US Asuncion, Paraguay Atlanta, USA Auckland, New Zealand Bangkok, Thailand Bangor, USA Banjul, Gambia Beirut, Lebanon Belize City, Belize Berlin, Germany Beverly, USA Blantyre, Malawi Boston, USA Bucharest, Romania Buenos Aires, Argentina Bujumbura, Burundi Burbank, USA Cairo, Egypt Calgary, Canada Cape Town, South Africa Castries, Saint Lucia Changi, Singapore Chicago, USA College Park, US Colombo, Sri Lanka Cordoba, Argentina Cotonou, Benin Dallas, United States Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Denver, USA Dhaka, Bangladesh Dubai, UAE Dublin, Ireland Durban, South Africa Edinburgh, United Kingdom Enfidha, Tunisia Frankfurt, Germany Gaborone, Botswana Gaza, Palestinian Territory Guayaquil, Ecaudor Halifax, Canada Harare, Zimbabwe Hong Kong, China Istanbul, Turkey Jacksonville, USA Jakarta, Indonesia Johannesburg, South Africa Kampala, Uganda Kansas City, US Kathmandu, Nepal Khartoum, Sudan Kiev, Ukraine Kigali City, Rwanda Kingston, Jamaica Kinshasa, Congo Klagenfurt, Austria La Paz, Bolivia Lagos, Nigeria Leeds, United Kingdom Libreville, Gabon Lome, Togo London, United Kingdom Los Angeles, USA Luanda, Angola Lyon, France Manchester, United Kingdom Manila, Philippines Maputo, Mozambique McLean, USA Mexico City, Mexico Miami, USA Milwaukee, USA Mogadishu, Somalia Mombasa, Kenya Moncton, Canada Monrovia, Liberia Montgomery, USA Montreal, Canada Mumbai, India Nairobi, Kenya Neuquen, Argentina New York, US Ottawa, Canada Palo Alto, US Paris, France Perth, Australia Phnom Penh, Cambodia Phoenix, US Port Au Prince, Haiti Port Louis, Mauritius Port of Spain, Trinidad Port Vila, Vanuatu Portland, USA Posadus, Argentina Prague, Czech Republic Reno, US Richmond, US Rosario, Argentina Roseau, Dominica Saldanha Bay, South Africa Salzburg, Austria San Francisco, USA San Jose, Costa Rica Santiago, Chile Saskatoon, Canada Seattle, USA Seoul, Korea Siegerland, Germany Singapore, Singapore Sofia, Bulgaria st louis, us St. George, USA St. George's, Grenada Sydney, Australia Tallinn, Estonia Tampa, US Tampere, Finland Tegucigalpa, Honduras Tokyo, Japan Toronto, Canada Tunis, Tunisia Turin, Italy Vienna, Austria Vilnios, Lithuania Warsaw, Poland Wellington, New Zealand Windhoek, Namibia Winnipeg, Canada Yerevan, Armenia Zurich, CH
IPv4: 199.7.91.13
IPv6: 2001:500:2D::D
10886
D Root YAML
NASA Ames Research Center
Sites: 194
Accra, GH Amsterdam, NL Amsterdam, NL Arusha, TZ Ashburn, US Athens, GR Atlanta, US Atlanta, US Auckland, NZ Auckland, NZ Bangkok, TH Barcelona, ES Beaverton, US Beirut, LB Belgrade, RS Berlin, DE Berlin, DE Beverly, US Boston, US Boston, US Brisbane, AU Brussels, BE Bucharest, RO Bucharest, RO Budapest, HU Buenos Aires, AR Buenos Aires, AR Burbank, US Cairo, EG Calgary, CA Cape Town, ZA Cape Town, ZA Chelmsford, US Chennai, IN Chicago, US Chicago, US Colombo, LK Copenhagen, DK Cordoba, AR Dallas, US Dar es Salaam, TZ Düsseldorf, DE Denver, US Denver, US Detroit, US Dhaka, BD Djibouti, DJ Doha, QA Dubai, AE Dublin, IE Dublin, IE Durban, ZA Frankfurt, DE Halifax, CA Hamburg, DE Helsinki, FI Hong Kong, HK Istanbul, TR Jacksonville, US Jakarta, ID Johannesburg, ZA Johannesburg, ZA Kansas City, US Kathmandu, NP Kiev, UA Klagenfurt, AT Kuala Lumpur, MY Kuwait City, KW Las Vegas, US Leeds, UK Lima, PE Lisbon, PT London, UK Los Angeles, US Luanda, AO Lyon, FR Madrid, ES Manchester, UK Manchester, UK Manila, PH Maputo, MZ Marseille, FR McAllen, US Medellin, CO Melbourne, AU Mexico City, MX Miami, US Milan, IT Minneapolis, US Mombasa, KE Montgomery, US Montreal, CA Montreal, CA Mountain View, US Mumbai, IN Munich, DE Muscat, OM Nairobi, KE Nashville, US Nequen, AR New Delhi, IN New York, US Newark, US Newark, US Omaha, US Osaka, JP Oslo, NO Ottawa, CA Palo Alto, US Panama City, PA Paris, FR Perth, AU Perth, AU Philadelphia, US Phoenix, US Phoenix, US Port Louis, MU Port of Spain, TT Portland, US Posadas, AR Prague, CZ Prague, CZ Quito, EC Reno, US Richmond, US Rio de Janeiro, BR Rome, IT Roseau, DO Saldanha, ZA San Diego, US San Francisco, US San Jose, US Santa Ana, US Santiago, CL Santiago, CL Saskatoon, CA São Paulo, BR Seattle, US Seattle, US Seoul, KR Seoul, KR Singapore, SG Singapore, SG Sofia, BG Sofia, BG St. George, US St. George's, GD St. Louis, US St. Louis, US Stockholm, SE Sydney, AU Taipei, TW Tallinn, EE Tampa, US Tampa, US Tampere, FI Tokyo, JP Tokyo, JP Toronto, CA Toronto, CA Turin, IT Valparaiso, CL Vancouver, CA Vienna, AT Vienna, AT Vilnius, LT Warsaw, PL Warsaw, PL Washington, US Wellington, NZ Willemstad, CW Winnipeg, CA Yerevan, AM Zagreb, HR Zurich, CH Zurich, CH
IPv4: 192.203.230.10
IPv6: 2001:500:a8::e
21556
E Root YAML
Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.
Sites: 223
Amsterdam, NL Amsterdam, NL Ashburn, US Ashburn, US Athens, GR Athens, GR Atlanta, US Atlanta, US Auckland, NZ Auckland, NZ Baghdad, IQ Bangkok, TH Bangkok, TH Barcelona, ES Barcelona, ES Beijing, CN Beirut, LB Belgrade, RS Berlin, DE Berlin, DE Bogota, CO Boston, US Boston, US Brisbane, AU Brisbane, AU Brussels, BE Brussels, BE Bucharest, RO Bucharest, RO Budapest, HU Buenos Aires, AR Buenos Aires, AR Cairo, EG Cairo, EG Calgary, CA Cape Town, ZA Cebu, PH Chennai, IN Chennai, IN Chicago, US Chicago, US Chisinau, MD Colombo, LK Copenhagen, DK Copenhagen, DK Dallas, US Dallas, US Denver, US Denver, US Detroit, US Djibouti City, DJ Doha, QA Doha, QA Dubai, AE Dubai, AE Dublin, IE Dublin, IE Durban, ZA Dusseldorf, DE Dusseldorf, DE Edinburgh, GB Frankfurt, DE Frankfurt, DE Hamburg, DE Hamburg, DE Helsinki, FI Helsinki, FI Hong Kong, HK Hong Kong, HK Houston, US Indianapolis, US Istanbul, TR Jacksonville, US Johannesburg, ZA Johannesburg, ZA Kansas City, US Kathmandu, NP Kiev, UA Kiev, UA Kuala Lumpur, MY Kuala Lumpur, MY Kuwait City, KW Kuwait City, KW Las Vegas, US Las Vegas, US Lima, PE Lima, PE Lisbon, PT Lisbon, PT London, GB London, GB Los Angeles, US Los Angeles, US Luanda, AO Luanda, AO Luxembourg City, LU Macau, MO Madrid, ES Madrid, ES Manchester, GB Manchester, GB Manila, PH Manila, PH Marseille, FR Marseille, FR McAllen, US Medellin, CO Medellin, CO Melbourne, AU Melbourne, AU Memphis, US Mexico City, MX Miami, US Miami, US Milan, IT Milan, IT Minneapolis, US Minneapolis, US Mombasa, KE Mombasa, KE Montgomery, US Montreal, CA Montreal, CA Moscow, RU Moscow, RU Mumbai, IN Mumbai, IN Munich, DE Muscat, OM Muscat, OM Nashville, US Nashville, US New Delhi, IN New Delhi, IN Newark, US Newark, US Norfolk, US Omaha, US Omaha, US Osaka, JP Osaka, JP Oslo, NO Oslo, NO Panama City, PA Panama City, PA Paris, FR Paris, FR Perth, AU Perth, AU Philadelphia, US Phnom Penh, KH Phoenix, US Phoenix, US Pittsburgh, US Port Louis, MU Portland, US Prague, CZ Prague, CZ Quito, EC Reykjavik, IS Richmond, US Riga, LV Rio de Janeiro, BR Riyadh, SA Rome, IT Sacramento, US Salt Lake City, US San Diego, US San Jose, US San Jose, US Santiago, CL Sao Paulo, BR Sao Paulo, BR Saskatoon, CA Seattle, US Seattle, US Seoul, KR Seoul, KR Singapore, SG Singapore, SG Sofia, BG Sofia, BG St. Louis, US St. Louis, US Stockholm, SE Stockholm, SE Sydney, AU Sydney, AU Taipei, TW Taipei, TW Tallahassee, US Tallinn, EE Tampa, US Tampa, US Tel Aviv, IL Tokyo, JP Tokyo, JP Toronto, CA Toronto, CA Valparaiso, CL Vancouver, CA Vancouver, CA Vienna, AT Vienna, AT Vilnius, LT Warsaw, PL Warsaw, PL Willemstad, CW Winnipeg, CA Yerevan, AM Zagreb, HR Zurich, CH Zurich, CH
IPv4: 192.5.5.241
IPv6: 2001:500:2f::f
3557
F Root YAML
U.S. DOD Network Information Center
Sites: 6
Columbus, US Fussa, JP Honolulu, US Naples, IT San Antonio, US Stuttgart-Vaihingen, DE
IPv4: 192.112.36.4
IPv6: 2001:500:12::d0d
5927
G Root YAML
Sites: 2
Aberdeen Proving Ground, US San Diego, US
IPv4: 198.97.190.53
IPv6: 2001:500:1::53
1508
H Root YAML
Sites: 68
Amsterdam, NL Ankara, TR Ashburn, US Asuncion, PY Bangkok, TH Beijing, CN Belgrade, RS Bratislava, SK Brussels, BE Bucharest, RO Chicago, US Colombo, LK Copenhagen, DK Doha, QA Dubai, AE Frankfurt, DE Geneva, CH Gothenburg, SE Helsinki, FI HongKong, CN Jakarta, ID Johannesburg, ZA Karachi, PK Kathmandu, NP Kiev, UA Kigali, RW Kuala Lumpur, MY Ljubljana, SI London, UK Lulea, SE Luxembourg City, LU Manama, BH Manila, PH Miami, US Milan, IT Montevideo, UY Mumbai, IN Oslo, NO Paris, FR Perth, AU Port Vila, VU Porto Alegre, BR Reykjavik, IS Riga, LV San Francisco, US Sao Paulo, BR Shiraz, IR Singapore, SG St Petersburg, RU Stockholm, SE Sundsvall, SE Taipei, TW Tallinn, EE Thimphu, BT Tokyo, JP Ulaanbaatar, MN Vienna, AT Washington DC, US Wellington, NZ Yerevan, AM
IPv4: 192.36.148.17
IPv6: 2001:7fe::53
29216
I Root YAML
Sites: 162
Amsterdam, NL Aracaju, BR Ashburn, US Athens, GR Atlanta, US Bang Na, TH Bangalore , IN Barcelona, ES Beaverton, US Beijing, CN Belgrade, RS Belo Horizonte, BR Berlin, DE Bettembourg, LU Boston, US Brasilia, BR Bratislava, SK Brisbane, AU Bucharest, RO Cajazeiras, BR Calgary, CA Cape Town, ZA Chicago, US Ciudad de Buenos Aires, AR Cochabamba, BO Colombo, LK Cordoba, AR Dallas, US Dar es Salaam, TZ Del Viso, AR Dhaka, BD Djibouti City, DJ Dublin, IE Eau Claire, US Edinburgh, GB Esperanca, BR Fayetteville, US Frankfurt, DE Geneva, CH Guarabira, BR Gurgaon, IN Halifax, CA Hangzhou, CN Hong Kong Honolulu, US Istanbul , TR Jakarta, ID Johannesburg, ZA Johnston, US Juazeirinho, BR Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, US Kansas City, US Kaunas, LT Kiev, UA Kigali city, RW Klagenfurt, AT Kolkata, IN Kuala Lumpur, MY Lagos , NG Lalitpur, NP Leeds, GB Lisbon, PT Ljubljana, SI London, GB Los Angeles, US Luanda, AO Male, MV Melbourne, AU Miami, US Milano, IT Montgomery, US Moscow, RU Mumbai, IN Muscat, OM Nairobi, KE New Castle, US New Delhi, IN Oslo, NO Ottawa, CA Oulu, FI Pakkret, TH Paris, FR Parow, ZA Perth, AU Petach Tikva, IL Pirassununga, BR Plano, US Prague, CZ Quezon City, PH Reno, US Reykjavik, IS Richmond, US Riga, LV Rio de Janeiro, BR Rome, IT Saint Petersburg, RU Salzburg, AT San Francisco, US San Jose, CR San Juan, PR Santiago, CL Seattle, US Seoul, KP Shuwaikh , KW Singapore, SG Sittingbourne, GB Sofia, BG St. George, US Stockholm, SE Sydney, AU Tallinn, EE Tampa, US Tamuning, GU Tokyo, JP Turin, IT Vancouver, CA Warsaw, PL Wellington, NZ Winnipeg, CA Woodstock, US Yerevan, AM Zagreb, HR Zurich, CH
IPv4: 192.58.128.30
IPv6: 2001:503:c27::2:30
26415
J Root YAML
Sites: 62
Abovyan, AM Amsterdam, NL Ashland, US Athens, GR Barcelona, ES Beirut, LB Belgrade, RS Berlin, DE Brisbane, AU Bucharest, RO Budapest, HU Buenos Aires, AR Calgary, CA Cork, IE Doha, QA Dushanbe, TJ Frankfurt, DE Gdynia, PL Geneva, CH Hamburg, DE Helsinki, FI Johannesburg, ZA Kansas City, US Karlsruhe, DE Kuwait City, KW London, UK Lugansk, UA Manama, BH Miami, US Milan, IT Montevideo, UY Moscow, RU Mumbai, IN Noida, IN Novosibirsk, RU Nuuk, GL Ottawa, CA Panama City, PA Paris, FR Poznan, PL Prague, CZ Reno, US Reykjavik, IS Richmond, US Riga, LV Saint Petersburg, RU San Jose, CR Santiago, CL Semey, KZ Sofia, BG St George, US Tbilisi, GE Tehran, IR Tokyo, JP Vienna, AT Vilnius, LT Yerevan, AM Zurich, CH
IPv4: 193.0.14.129
IPv6: 2001:7fd::1
25152
K Root YAML
Sites: 162
Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire Al Muharraq, Bahrain Amman, Jordan Anchorage, United States Ankara, Turkey Apia, Samoa Arlington County, United States Asuncion, Paraguay Atlanta, United States Baku, Azerbaijan Bangkok, Thailand Beijing, People's Republic of China Beirut, Lebanon Belem, Brazil Belgrade, Serbia Belo Horizonte, Brazil Blantyre, Malawi Bogota, Colombia Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire Brasilia, Brazil Bratislava, Slovakia Brisbane, Australia Brussels, Belgium Callao, Peru Campinas, Brazil Cape Town, South Africa Chicago, United States Christchurch, New Zealand Cochabamba, Bolivia Colombo, Sri Lanka Copenhagen, Denmark Curitiba, Brazil Dakar, Senegal Dammam, Saudi Arabia Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Denver, United States Des Moines, United States Dortmund, Germany Dubai, United Arab Emirates Dundee, United Kingdom Dusseldorf, Germany El Prat de Llobregat, Spain Ezeiza, Argentina Florence, Italy Florianopolis, Brazil Fortaleza, Brazil Geneva, Switzerland Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands Hagatna, Guam Hamburg, Germany Helsinki-Vantaa, Finland Heraklion, Greece Honiara, Solomon Islands Honolulu, United States Incheon, South Korea Islamabad-Rawalpindi, Pakistan Jakarta, Indonesia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Johannesburg, South Africa Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, United States Kharkiv, Ukraine Kiev, Ukraine Kolkata, India Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia Kuwait City, Kuwait Lahore, Pakistan Lawrence, United States Leeds-Bradford, United Kingdom London, United Kingdom Londrina, Brazil Los Angeles, United States Lyon, France Mahe, Seychelles Maiquetia, Venezuela Majuro, Marshall Islands Malmo, Sweden Mandalay, Myanmar Mangere, New Zealand Marseille, France Mascot, Australia Melbourne, Australia Metro Manila, Philippines Minsk, Belarus Mississauga, Canada Monterrey, Mexico Montevideo, Uruguay Moscow, Russian Federation Mumbai, India Muscat, Oman Nadi, Fiji Natal, Brazil Noumea, New Caledonia Odessa, Ukraine Ottawa, Canada Papeete, French Polynesia Paris, France Paris-Orly, France Perth, Australia Plaisance, Mauritius Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea Portland, United States Porto, Portugal Porto Alegre, Brazil Prague, Czech Republic Punta Caucedo, Dominican Republic Quito, Ecuador Rabat, Morocco Ramallah, Palestine Reno, United States Reston, United States Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Rochester, United Kingdom Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation Salvador, Brazil San Jose, United States San Jose, Costa Rica San Salvador, El Salvador Sana'a, Yemen Santiago, Chile Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil Sao Paulo, Brazil SeaTac, United States Semey, Kazakhstan Sofia, Bulgaria St Denis, Reunion Stockholm, Sweden Suva-Nausori, Fiji Taoyuan County, Republic of China Tokyo, Japan Toronto, Canada Tunis-Carthage, Tunisia Uberlandia, Brazil Ullensaker, Norway Vancouver, Canada Wilmington, United States Winnipeg, Canada Yangon, Myanmar Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation Yerevan, Armenia Yogyakarta, Indonesia
IPv4: 199.7.83.42
IPv6: 2001:500:9f::42
20144
L Root YAML
Sites: 9
Osaka, JP Paris, FR San Francisco, US Seoul, KR Tokyo, JP
IPv4: 202.12.27.33
IPv6: 2001:dc3::35
7500
M Root YAML

Legend

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